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Baking Products and their Substitute

These definitions does not include additives or preservatives.

Health conscious people should read the food ingredients when shopping.





All-purpose flour

A combination of hard and soft wheats. Unbleached and bleached are the two kinds of all-purpose flours available.




The whole or powdered seeds of a tropical American myrtaceous tree, Pimenta officinalis berry used as a spice, having a flavour said to resemble a mixture of cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg (Also called pimento Jamaica pepper)

1 teaspoon

  • 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, and 1/4 teaspoon cloves

Arrowroot starch

A starch obtained from the horizontal rhizomes of several species of Maranta. Brazilian arrowroot, or tapioca-meal, more usually known as cassava, is obtained from the fleshy root of Manihot utilissima, after the poisonous juice has been removed.

1 teaspoon

  • 1 tablespoon flour,
  • 1 teaspoon cornstarch

Baking mix

A mixture of flour, baking powder, salt and shortening that are combined to form a base for making breads, biscuits, and flat cakes.

1 cup

  • 1 cup pancake mix
  • 1 cup Easy Biscuit Mixture

Baking powder

A leavening agent made from a combination of baking soda, an acid (such as cream of tartar) and a moisture absorber (such as cornstarch). When baking powder is mixed with moist ingredients, carbon dioxide bubbles are released, causing batter to rise.

1 teaspoon

  • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
  • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup)

Baking soda

A leavening agent known as sodium bicarbonate. When baking soda is combined with an acid ingredient, carbon dioxide gas bubbles are released, causing dough or batter to rise.




Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation or infusion of barley, malt, hops or other ingredients, or any combination of them.

1 cup

  • 1 cup nonalcoholic beer
  • 1 cup chicken broth


It's a spirit produced by distilling wine, the wine having first been produced by fermenting grapes. Brandy generally contains 36%–60% alcohol by volume

1/4 cup

  • 1 teaspoon imitation brandy extract plus enough water to make 1/4 cup

Bread crumbs


1 cup

  • 1 cup cracker crumbs
  • 1 cup matzo meal
  • 1 cup ground oats

Bread flour

Contains wheat higher in gluten, which gives breads more structure and volume.



Broth: beef or chicken

The water in which meat, fish, or vegetables have been boiled; stock.


1 cup

  • 1 bouillon cube plus 1 cup boiling water
  • 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus enough water to make 1 cup
  • 1 cup vegetable broth

Brown sugar

Made by mixing refined molasses syrup with white sugar. Light and dark brown sugar are two types available; the darker has a more intense flavor.

1 cup, packed

  • 1 cup white sugar plus 1/4 cup molasses and decrease the liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup
  • 1 cup white sugar
  • 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar

Butter (salted)


1 cup

  • 1 cup margarine
  • 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

Butter (unsalted)

A saturated fat made from churning cream until it reaches a semi-solid state.

1 cup

  • 1 cup shortening
  • 7/8 cup vegetable oil
  • 7/8 cup lard


A thick, smooth liquid made by adding lactic acid bacteria to nonfat or low-fat milk.

1 cup

  • 1 cup yogurt
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup

Cheddar cheese


1 cup shredded

  • 1 cup shredded Colby cheddar
  • 1 cup shredded Monterey Jack cheese


fresh ferny parsley-like leaves used as a garnish with chicken and veal and omelets and green salads and spinach

1 tablespoon chopped fresh

  • 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley

Chicken base


1 tablespoon

  • 1 cup canned or homemade chicken broth or stock. Reduce liquid in recipe by 1 cup


Made from ground cocoa beans in a process that separates cocoa butter from chocolate liquor. The dark-brown chocolate liquor paste is then refined and mixed with various ingredients to produce different varieties.

1 ounce

  • 1 (1-ounce) square of unsweetened chocolate plus 4 teaspoons sugar
  • 1 ounce semisweet chocolate chips plus 1 teaspoon shortening

Chocolate (unsweetened)

Baking or bitter chocolate is Unsweetened chocolate that contains no additional ingredients.

1 ounce

  • 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon shortening or vegetable oil


Cocoa powder is Dried, unsweetened powder formed from the solid left over after extracting the cocoa butter content from chocolate liquor.

1/4 cup

  • 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate

Condensed cream of mushroom soup


1 (10.75-ounce) can

  • 1 (10.75-ounce) can condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken
  • golden mushroom soup


A dense, finely ground flour made from the endosperm portion of the corn kernel. Cornstarch is used to thicken desserts, sauces, soups etc. It also keeps sauces clear, not cloudy.



Corn syrup

A thick, sweet liquid (light or dark) made by processing cornstarch with acids or enzymes. Light corn syrup has been clarified to remove all color and cloudiness. Dark corn syrup is stronger flavored and a deeper colored because it is flavored and colored with caramel. Mostly used in candies, frostings and jams because it doesn't crystallize.

1 cup

  • 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water
  • 1 cup honey
  • 1 cup light treacle syrup

Cottage cheese


1 cup

  • 1 cup farmer's cheese
  • 1 cup ricotta cheese

Cracker crumbs


1 cup

  • 1 cup bread crumbs
  • 1 cup matzo meal
  •   1 cup ground oats

Cream (half and half)


1 cup

  • 7/8 cup milk plus 1 tablespoon butter

Cream (heavy)

The part of milk containing the butterfat


1 cup

  • 1 cup evaporated milk
  • 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup butter

Cream (light)


1 cup

  • 1 cup evaporated milk
  • 3/4 cup milk plus 3 tablespoons butter

Cream (whipped)


1 cup

  • 1 cup frozen whipped topping, thawed

Cream cheese


1 cup

  • 1 cup pureed cottage cheese
  • 1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth

Cream of tartar

A white powder processed from the acid deposited on the inside of wine barrels. Cream of tartar is added to egg whites before beating to improve stability and volume, and to candies and frostings to make them creamier.

1 teaspoon

  • 2 teaspoons lemon juice or vinegar

Crème Fraiche

It's a soured cream containing about 28% butterfat and with a pH of around 4.5. It is soured with bacterial culture, but is thicker, and less sour than sour cream.

1 cup

  • Combine 1 cup of heavy cream and 1 tablespoon of plain yogurt. Let stand for 6 hours at room temperature


Flour, liquid and other ingredients mixed together in a thick -- but easily kneadable -- paste. Often includes a leavening agent.





1 whole (3 tablespoons or 1.7 oz)

  • 2 1/2 tablespoons of powdered egg substitute plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water
  • 1/4 cup liquid egg substitute
  • 1/4 cup silken tofu pureed OR 3 tablespoons mayonnaise
  • half a banana mashed with 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1 tablespoon powdered flax seed soaked in 3 tablespoons water

Evaporated milk

Is a liquid, slightly thicker than milk, made by homogenizing whole milk from which 60 percent of the water has been removed.

1 cup

  • 1 cup light cream

Farmer's cheese


8 ounces

  • 8 ounces dry cottage cheese
  • 8 ounces creamed cottage cheese, drained

Fats for baking

Used in cooking to add flavor to food, to help bind ingredients together, to tenderize baked goods and to fry foods. Butter, oil or lard.

1 cup

  • 1 cup applesauce
  • 1 cup fruit puree


The finely ground grain of wheat, corn, oat, rye or barley used in breads, cakes and cookies.




Contains wheats higher in gluten, which gives breads more structure and volume


1 cup

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon wheat gluten (available at health food stores & some supermarkets)


Contains soft wheats, high in starch, which gives cakes a fine texture.

1 cup

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons


Is All-purpose flour with a leavener and salt added.

1 cup

  • 7/8 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon of salt



1 clove

  • 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic
  • 1/2 teaspoon garlic salt--reduce salt in recipe


A colorless or slightly yellow, transparent, brittle protein formed by boiling the specially prepared skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals and used in foods, drugs, and photographic film.

1 tablespoon, granulated

  • 2 teaspoons agar



1 teaspoon

  • 2 teaspoons chopped fresh ginger



1 teaspoon, minced

  • 1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger

Green onion


1/2 cup , chopped

  • 1/2 cup chopped onion
  • 1/2 cup chopped leek
  • 1/2 cup chopped shallots



1 cup whole

  • 1 cup macadamia nuts
  • 1 cup almonds



1 tablespoon chopped fresh

  • 1 teaspoon (chopped or whole leaf) dried herbs



8 ounces

  • 8 ounces of sardines


Made from flower nectar by bees, honey is a thick sweetener often used for pastries and other baked goods.
It comes in three varieties: comb (containing the edible honeycomb), chunk-style (containing pieces of comb) and liquid (comb-less and often pasteurized).

1 cup

  • 1 1/4 cup white sugar plus 1/3 cup water
  • 1 cup corn syrup
  • 1 cup light treacle syrup

Hot pepper sauce


1 teaspoon

  • 3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar


Thick spicy sauce made from tomatoes. The ingredients in a typical modern ketchup are tomato concentrate, spirit vinegar, corn syrup or other sugar, salt, spice and herb extracts (including celery), spice and garlic powder.

1 cup

  • 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1 teaspoon vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar

Key lime

Smaller and rounder than standard limes. Key limes come from Florida and are more yellow than green. Used in Key Lime Pie.




A saturated fat made from rendered pork fat.

1 cup

  • 1 cup shortening
  • 7/8 cup vegetable oil
  • 1 cup butter

Leavener or leavening agent

Ingredients that are used to lighten the texture and increase the volume of baked goods such as breads, cakes and cookies



Lemon grass


2 fresh stalks

  • 1 tablespoon lemon zest

Lemon juice


1 teaspoon

  • 1/2 teaspoon vinegar
  • 1 teaspoon white wine
  • 1 teaspoon lime juice

Lemon zest

Tiny bits of lemon peel


1 teaspoon

  • 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
  • 2 tablespoons lemon juice

Lime juice


1 teaspoon

  • 1 teaspoon vinegar
  • 1 teaspoon white wine
  • 1 teaspoon lemon juice

Low-fat milk

Milk that contains 0.5 percent to 2 percent butter fat.



Macadamia nuts


1 cup

  • 1 cup almonds
  • 1 cup hazelnuts


Nutmeg is the seed from the nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans), while mace is made from the "webbing" type covering on the seed that is dried and later ground. That's why you'll often see the two spices used as substitutes of each other.

1 teaspoon

  • 1 teaspoon nutmeg



1 cup

  • 1 cup shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1 cup butter
  • 7/8 cup vegetable oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt


Egg yolks and oil and vinegar

1 cup

  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup plain yogurt


Milk that contains at least 3.25 percent butter fat.

1 cup

  • 1 cup soy milk
  • 1 cup rice milk
  • 1 cup water or juice
  • 1/4 cup dry milk powder plus 1 cup water
  • 2/3 cup evaporated milk plus 1/3 cup water



1/4 cup chopped

  • 1 tablespoon dried mint leaves


Thick dark syrup produced by boiling down juice from sugar cane

1 cup

  • Mix 3/4 cup brown sugar and 1 teaspoon cream of tartar



1 tablespoon

  • Mix together 1 tablespoon dried mustard, 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon vinegar and 1 teaspoon sugar


Decorative candies used for cakes and cookies. Also refers to a chocolate candy covered in sugar beads.





1 cup, chopped

  • 1 cup chopped green onions
  • 1 cup chopped shallots
  • 1 cup chopped leeks
  • 1/4 cup dried minced onion
  • 1/4 cup onion powder

Orange juice


1 tablespoon

  • 1 tablespoon other citrus juice

Orange zest

Tiny bits of orange peel. orange peel, orange rind - the rind of an orange

1 tablespoon

  • 1/2 teaspoon orange extract
  • 1 teaspoon lemon juice

Parmesan cheese


1/2 cup, grated

  • 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese
  • 1/2 cup grated Romano cheese


Aromatic herb with flat or crinkly leaves that are cut finely and used to garnish food

1 tablespoon chopped fresh

  • 1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil
  • 1 teaspoon dried parsley


A highly spiced pork and beef sausage.


1 ounce

  • 1 ounce salami

Powdered, 10X or confectioner sugar

Granulated sugar that has been crushed to a fine powder.




Dried grape

1 cup

  • 1 cup dried currants
  • 1 cup dried cranberries
  • 1 cup chopped pitted prunes



1 cup, cooked

  • 1 cup cooked barley
  • 1 cup cooked bulgur
  • 1 cup cooked brown or wild rice


Ricotta is an Italian sheep milk or cow milk whey cheese.

1 cup

  • 1 cup dry cottage cheese
  • 1 cup silken tofu


liquor distilled from fermented molasses

1 tablespoon

  • 1/2 teaspoon rum extract, plus enough water to make 1 tablespoon


The yellow-orange stigmas from a small purple crocus (Crocus sativus ). used not only to flavor food and beverages but to make medicines and to dye cloth and body oils a deep yellow. Today this pungent, aromatic spice is primarily used to flavor and tint food.

1/4 teaspoon

  • 1/4 teaspoon turmeric


Any of various highly spiced and salted sausages, made from beef or a mixture of pork and beef.

1 ounce

  • 1 ounce pepperoni

Saturated fat

It usually come from animal sources, such as butter or lard, and remain solid at room temperature. Oils high in saturated fat should be avoided because they have been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels.



Semisweet chocolate chips

Varieties of chocolate used in baking or for eating made by adding sugar, milk, vanilla or other flavorings to unsweetened chocolate.

1 cup

  • 1 cup chocolate candies
  • 1 cup peanut butter or other flavored chips
  • 1 cup chopped nuts
  • 1 cup chopped dried fruit

Shallots, chopped

Also called scallion an alliaceous plant is the bulb of this plant, which divides into small sections and is used in cooking for flavoring and as a vegetable


1/2 cup

  • 1/2 cup chopped onion
  • 1/2 cup chopped leek
  • 1/2 cup chopped green onion


A solid fat made from vegetable oils. Hydrogenating the oil, that is, adding hydrogen gas to it at a high temperature and pressure, is what transforms it from a liquid at room temperature to a solid. Vegetable shortening is flavorless.

1 cup

  • 1 cup butter
  • 1 cup margarine minus 1/2 teaspoon salt from recipe

Skim milk

Milk that contains less than 0.5 percent butter fat.



Sour cream

A thickened cream mixture produced by adding a bacterial culture to fresh cream; it is left to incubate and some of the lactose converts to lactic acid.

1 cup

  • 1 cup plain yogurt
  • 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough cream to make 1 cup
  • 3/4 cup buttermilk mixed with 1/3 cup butter

Sour milk

milk that has acquired a tart taste, either through the addition of an acid, such as lemon juice or vinegar, or through bacterial fermentation.

1 cup

  • 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice mixed with enough milk to make 1 cup: Let stand 5 minutes to thicken

Soy sauce

A dark, salty sauce made from fermenting boiled soybeans and roasted wheat or barley

1/2 cup

  • 4 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce mixed with 1 tablespoon water

Stock--beef or chicken


1 cup

  • 1 cube beef or chicken bouillon dissolved in 1 cup water

Sweetened condensed milk

A thick, sweet liquid made by boiling down a mixture of whole milk and sugar until 60 percent of the water evaporates.

1 (14-ounce) can

  • 3/4 cup white sugar mixed with 1/2 cup water and 1 1/8 cups dry powdered milk: Bring to a boil and cook, stirring frequently, until thickened, about 20 minutes

Unsaturated fat

Oils high in unsaturated fats (monounsaturated or polyunsaturated) have been shown to reduce blood cholesterol level. Unsaturated fats come primarily from plant sources and remain liquid at room temperature.




A flavoring extracted from the seeds of an orchid.



Vegetable oil

Vegetable oil is the oil that is derived from any plants, fruits, vegetables and seeds. Though many parts of a plant can be used for extracting oil, the seeds are mainly used for extracting oil for commercial purposes.


  • Coconut oil
  • fruit puree

Vegetable oil--for baking


1 cup

  • 1 cup applesauce
  • 1 cup fruit puree

Vegetable oil--for frying


1 cup

  • 1 cup lard
  • 1 cup vegetable shortening


Made by fermenting alcoholic liquids (such as cider, wine, and malt). The natural evolution of the juice of grape, vine is only a way towards vinegar. Any wine might become vinegar.

1 teaspoon

  • 1 teaspoon lemon or lime juice
  • 2 teaspoons white wine

White chocolate

Is not a true chocolate because it contains no chocolate liquor. White chocolate is typically made of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin and vanilla.



White sugar or Granulated Sugar

Made from highly refined beet or cane sugar.

1 cup

  • 1 cup brown sugar
  • 1 1/4 cups confectioners' sugar
  • 3/4 cup honey
  • 3/4 cup corn syrup

Whole-wheat flour

Contains wheat germ, which results in a higher fiber, protein and fat content in baked goods.




fermented juice (of grapes especially)


1 cup

  • 1 cup chicken or beef broth
  • 1 cup fruit juice mixed with 2 teaspoons vinegar
  • 1 cup water

Yeast-active dry

A leavening agent that releases carbon dioxide bubbles through fermentation.

1 (.25-ounce) package

  • 1 cake compressed yeast
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons rapid rise yeast


Yogurt is milk which has been fermented by keeping it at a temperature of 110 degrees for several hours. The final product is a creamy with a slightly tart taste. Yogurt is available plain, flavored, and frozen.( Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. )

1 cup

  • 1 cup sour cream
  • 1 cup buttermilk
  • 1 cup sour milk


 How to Puree Fruit

1.       Purchase fruit at your local grocery store and prepare it by cleaning it. You can achieve this by running the fruit under water and in some cases peeling its skin.

2.       Chop the fruit into bite size pieces. The smaller the pieces the less time it will take to cook and make smooth.

3.       Put the clean, chopped fruit into a sauce pan, put enough water in the sauce pan to completely submerse the fruit. Place the pan on the stove and bring the mixture to a boil.

4.       Crush the cooked fruit with a potato masher or if you do not have a masher use a fork to mash the fruit. This is to get the biggest chunks out of the mixture.

5.       Put the cooked, mashed fruit into a food processor or blender. Begin pureeing the mixture until there are no chunks left, attempt to make it as smooth as possible.

6.       Add the liquid that was leftover from cooking the fruit to the mixture to help achieve desired consistency.

7.       Allow the pureed fruit to become room temperature or cooler before giving it to your baby. Refrigerate any leftovers.


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