Food Additives – W, X, Y & Z
Food Additives – W
Water -"Must be something in the Water!" With safe drinkable water being a problem for half of the world's population, it seems ludicrous that we should want to pollute such a precious resource. Our water may be accidentally contaminated by nitrates, lead or agrochemicals; or purposely by aluminum (added to make the water clear), chlorine ( to prevent algae bloom) and fluoride (claimed to reduce dental decay). The toxicity of chlorine is undoubted, however methods such as UV treatment , ozone treatment and improved filtration can be used to end the need for chlorine. Steps can be taken to reduce water contamination in the home by replacing lead piping or solder and filtering drinking water. Use cold water to fill your kettle, as the copper in hot water pipes dissolves into the warm water. Filters are targeted to remove specific chemicals, so water testing is required before fitting one. 12, 34
Whey – From milk.
Wine – Organic wines are supposedly free of gelatine or isinglass, because most of them use cold filtering. Clare Estate, Eden Ridge (including 'David Wynn' and 'Mount Adam') and Dalwhinnie are Australian Organic wines with national distribution. The UK VegSoc recommends Eden Ridge and Orlando Jacobs Creek.
Additive 1202 (Polyvinylpolypyrrolidine), 558 (Bentonite) and 559 (Kaolin)are used as clarifying agents for wine.
Other additives that may be used in the production of wine include:
150 Carmel, 301 Sodium Ascorbate, 202 Potassium Sorbate, 317 Erythorbic Acid, 220 Sulphur Dioxide, 318 Sodium Erythorbate, 223 Sodium Metabisulphide, 330 Citric Acid, 224 Potassiium Metabisulphide, 334 Tartaric Acid, 300 Ascorbic Acid. 36, 37
Wool – see Sheep
Wood – Hardwood deforestation is a major problem in third world countries. It is largely through first world greed for these products, and the relative poverty of the countries from which the wood is derived that slow growing rainforest hardwoods are being decimated. Stanway claims that Japan accounts for one third of the world's consumption of hardwood, used for chopsticks and plywood boxes for take-away foods. Species particularly at risk include Teak, Mahogany, Rosewood, African Walnut, Meranti and Iroko.
In Australia, the three major paper maufacturers, Amcor, Boral and North are active in wood chipping old growth forests. Amcor makes the bulk of its office paper from 100% virgin eucalypt fiber and are chlorine bleached. See also organochlorines, phenol, formaldehyde and paint. 12, 34, 57
Food Additives – XNo listings for X
Food Additives – Y
Yeast – dry yeast bought for home bread making may contain emulsifiers containing stearic acid which may be derived from animal tissue or lactic acid, derived from milk. (eg. 'Tandaco' contained 491 sorbitan monostearate and 481 sodium stearoyl lactylate) 48
Yoghurt – cultured milk product, many contain gelatine. Yoghurt is very simple to make in the home kitchen, requiring only whole milk and a little culture from the bought variety or a previous batch. Yoghurt is thought to be useful in replacing intestinal flora after antibiotics. A soy alternative is available in supermarkets, and soft tofu (also made from soy) makes an excellent savoury alternative. 1, 58
Food Addtives – Z
Zinc – Non-meat foods highest in zinc include legumes, whole grains, egg yolks and brewers yeast. 1, 43, 46
Zoos – While it is true that zoos maintain endangered species, many zoos are neither rich nor spacious enough to meet the needs of their inmates. The habitat of a cage is far from natural, and imitative habitats have not proved advantageous to breeding either. Large preserves are certainly a better way to preserve species, allowing animals to act out their lives in a way that is natural to them. There is no denying that some zoos are exploitative, existing only to turn a dollar and for human entertainment. As recently as October 1997, a zoo in Beijing, China was promoting 'horse fighting' as a means to attract the jaded tourist dollar. 49, 14