Food Additives – T
Talcum powder – usually contains hydrated magnesium sulphate or magnesium carbonate, the fine particles of which can cause lung problems if inhaled often. A cornstarch variety is available as a safe alternative. Talc itself is used in capsules and tablets, as well as other medications. Also in cosmetic powers. Inhalation is know to cause emphysema, especially in smokers. 3, 47
Tallow – hard, white fat derived from animals, used to make soap and candles, and in the dressing of leather. Also used in wax paper, crayons, margarines, paints, rubber, lubricants, soaps, shampoos, lipsticks, shaving creams, other cosmetics. May contain pesticide residues. 3, 14
Tallow tree – species which exudes waxy or fatty substances suitable for cooking, making soap and candles. 3
Tea – contains the stimulant caffeine in smaller amounts than in coffee. Tea also contains the alkaloids theobromine and theophylline which stimulate the heart rate and have the added effect of relaxing smooth muscle, and dilating blood vessels. Tea accumulates aluminum when growing, so that prepared tea may contain 2-6mg per liter. 7b. 47
Tea bags may have been bleached with chlorine, causing the release of dioxins. See Dioxins78
Tea-tree oil – derived from the leaves of the tea-tree plant, the oil has exceptional anti-bacterial properties 3
Teflon – a coating applied to cooking utensils for its non-stick quality. Teflon contains carbon and fluorine 3
Testing – Information courtesy of PETA:"Avon Products, Inc., until June of 1989 killed about 24,000 animals a year to test its products, now uses many non-animal tests, including the Eytex method. Eytex, developed by InVitro International in Irvine, Calif., assesses irritancy with a protein alteration system. A vegetable protein from the jack bean mimics the cornea's reaction when exposed to foreign matter. The greater the irritation, the more opaque the solution becomes. The Skintex formula, also developed by InVitro International, is made from the yellowish meat of the pumpkin rind; it mimics the reaction of human skin to foreign substances. Both Eytex and Skintex can be used to determine the toxicity of more than 5,000 different materials. " see also Alternatives to animal testing.
- Companies that still continue the barbaric practice of testing consumer items on animals should be boycotted. These companies continue to test on animals when they are not required by law to do so (the pharmaceutical industry, automotive and garden chemicals, food additives, are required to test):
- Cheeesborough-Ponds (Cutex, Faberge and Vaseline products)
- Bausch and Lomb (ray-ban)
- Bic (yes the pens and lighters are out!)
- Block Drug co (sensidyne toothpaste)
- Reckitt and Coleman
- Gilette (Oral B, Liquid Paper, Braun electrical appliances, Parker and Papermate, Waterman Ink, Dry Idea and Naturel Plus deodorants, Silkience hairspray, Shaving products, razors and blades,duracell batteries). Gilette declared to the international animal welfare community that, since September 1995, they have used no animals in experiments of any kind, though they refuse to sign any guarantee of a permanent ban on animal testing. 39
- Bristol-Myers Squibb (Clariol hair products)
- Carter Wallace (PearlDrops tooth polish, Curash powder)
- Colgate-palmolive (ajax, fab, toothpaste, palmolive dish detergent and soap)
- Dow brands
- Johnson&Johnson (every damn baby product you can think of as well as Neutrogena soap)
- Kimberley-Clark (Kleenex, Huggies),
- Mary Kay
- Nestle (coffee, milo other foodstuffs)
- Pfizer (visine)
- Procter & Gamble (Pampers Nappies, Pert, all Richardson-Vicks including Vaporub, Cover Girl, Max Factor,Pantene, Oil of Ulan, NapiSan, Milton, Clearasil, Infracare, Pringles,Whisper, Vidal Sassoon, Old Spice, Flash Cleaner, Le Jardin, Tampax, Metamucil, Always, Ariel, Attends, Blue Stratos, Bold, Boss, Bounce, Camay, Clearasil, Crest, Daz, Delph, Denclen, Dreft, Fairy Liquid, Fairy Snow, Head & Shoulders, Insignia, Lenor, Mandate, Pantene Pro-V Shampoo, Rapport, Sinex, Tide, Vortex, Zest )
- 3M (Post-it, Scotch tapes and stationery items, some medications)
- Unilever (Calvin Klein, Elizabeth Arden, Helene Curtis (Finesse shampoo),
- Warner-Lambert (Schick, Listerine)
- Yves St Laurent
- A comprehensive list is also available form PETA , VIVA and Animal Liberation. (see links) Email me for a partial list of address in Australia to write in protest of these companies testing practices.
- see also Cosmetics, Moisturizers 39, 50, 53
- Choose Cruelty Free have a list of brand names available in Australia that do not test their products on animals as well as lots of enlightening facts about animal testing.
Textured vegetable protein – TVP is an excellent meat replacement, low in fat and high in protein, comparable in taste and texture. Derived from soy beans ("defatted" soya flour), peanuts, sunflower or safflower oils. It is sometimes artificially flavoured. 1, 44
Titanium dioxide – pigment used in white paint and toothpaste derived from mineral rocks, pollutes many rivers and oceans.
Toothpaste – Toothpastes usually contain an abrasive (calcium phosphate or carbonate), a softening agent (glycerine), a foaming agent (often sodium laurel sulphate), a thickener (often sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), a flavouring (usually spearmint or peppermint oil) and water. Calcium carbonate is sometimes derived from bones; Titanium dioxide is often used to whiten the paste (a pollutant in many waterways) and Fluoride (a potential systemic poison) is added for its reputed cavity preventing properties. Many brands are tested using the LD50 process, force feeding rats and guinea pigs. Tubes are sometimes made of aluminium and leaching may occur (see aluminium).
Toothpaste has had a long history of animal abuse and chemical toxicity: the ancient Romans used ground bones of burnt rodents skulls, dog's bones have also been used and some toothpastes still contain bone ash. Toothpastes once contained hexachlorophene, chloroform and/or cyclamate, all toxic in various ways. Tubes were once made of lead until it was discovered that the lead leached into the paste! There are herbal toothpastes readily available in supermarkets and health food stores that do not test on animals or contain fluoride. A simple home-made toothpaste can be made from powdered charcoaled bread to which peppermint, cloves or rosemary oil have been added, or a simple mixture of bicarbonate of soda and salt. see also Fluoride. 12, 32, 78
Toxicity – the 'dirty dozen' commonly leached from waste sites include: trichloroethylene, lead, toluene, benzene, chromium, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethane, chloroform, arsenic, PCBs, cadmium and zinc. Petroleum/chlorine compounds are always toxic, persistent and accumulative in the bodies of plants and animals. Nine studies analysed by the Environmental Research Foundation in 1992 showed that many forms of cancer have been linked with exposure to these chemicals, including leukemia, stomach, lung, and lymph system cancers, as well as links with increased incidence of diabetes, suicide and cancer of the brain. Industries which used solvents (pathologists and printers), adhesives (rubber, plastics and synthetic chemical industries), dyes, perfumes, paints, and other inorganic substances, in oil refineries, and those who handle and transport those products were shown to have higher incidence of cancers than the general population. 17
The US EPA claims that we are 3 times more likely to contract cancer from pollution in our home: cleaning and personal products, 'outgassing' from resins made from aromatic hydrocarbons and formaldehyde, than from airborne contaminants. 12, 17
Tragacanth – additive 413. Resin form the tree Astragalus gummifer. A water soluble gum, used in foods, drugs including nasal solutions, elixirs and tablets. Also used as a binder in cosmetics. 48, 47
Trassi – shrimp paste
Truffles – a fungi that grows underground, high in naturally occurring MSG. 1, 3
TVP – see Textured Vegetable Protein
Tyrosine – derived from milk casein, found in skin products. 14.