Food Additives – C
Caesin – milk protein, used in cosmetics and non-dairy creams.
Caffeine – an alkaloid found in coffee, tea, chocolate and guarana. Caffeine is a stimulant that causes heart rate and respiration to increase. It also has a diuretic effect and delays fatigue. 7a. 1 cup instant coffee = 90-150mg caffeine 1 cup brewed tea = 30-70mg caffeine 7b. Caffeine has been implicated in the development of osteoporosis. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported "significant association between caffeinated coffee and decreasing bone mineral density…(in women. Except when) women reported drinking at least one glass of milk per day…" 7a. Caffeine has been found to inhibit the activity of some anti-epileptic drugs. It is possible to overdose on caffeine: it is estimated that it would take 50-100 cups to result in death. This figure was arrived at by employing the LD50 test.
Calcium carbonate – sometimes derived from animal bones. Used in fertilisers, some vitamin supplements, in toothpaste. (Additive 170) 14, 3
Camphor – compound obtained from the bark of camphor tree, a native of Indonesia. It can be synthetically produced. Used as a sedative, antispadmodic, liniment and in plastics. 3, 47
Candelilla wax – derived from the candelilla plant, this wax is used in lipsticks and cosmetics, rubber, records, and waterproofing of fabrics. 3, 14
Cantharides Tincture – Spanish Fly, made from Lytta vesicatoria a bright green beetle native ot the mediterranean 3, 50
Caprylic acid (and compounds) – derived from milk, palm or coconut oil. Used in perfumes and soaps. 3, 48
Carbamide – see urea
Carnuaba wax – derived from a South American palm, this wax is used in cosmetics and inks.
Carrageenan – see additive 407
Cars – vehicles use half the world's oil production. Carbon monoxide and lead pollution from car exhausts are major sources of urban air pollution. 59
Carob – also known as locust bean, carob is a native tree of South America. It is frequently used as a caffeine-free chocolate substitute. 1, 3
Carotene – provitamin A, beta carotene. Derived mostly from plants as red colouring, also found in animal tissues. see Additive 160. 14, 3
Carminic acid – see cochineal.
Cashmere – wool combed from the underbellies of cashmere goats during moulting season
Castor/eum – (not castor oil)derived from the genitals of musk rats, it is used in perfumes and incense. Synthetic and plant derivatives are available. 14, 3, 2
Castor Oil – derived from the plant Ricinus communis. Used in lipstick, foundation and nail enamels. 3, 47
Catgut – fibre derived from the intestines of hoofed animals. It is used as sutures in surgery, to string tennis rackets and musical instruments. Nylon is often used for these purposes today. 14, 2
Cetyl alcohol (and other cetyl compounds) – wax derived from sperm whales or dolphins, coconut oil can be an alternative. Also called palmityl alcohol or Hexadecyl alcohol. Can cause dermatitis. 14, 3, 2, 47
Ceresin – derived from minerals, a wax used to replace beeswax in cosmetics, wax paper, dentistry and candle making. 3, 14
Chickens – see eggs
Chlorella – an algae reputed to be 60% protein, and also rich in chlorophyll, RNA and DNA, vitamins, minerals and especially B12. Very cheap to produce as a potential food source. 1
Chlorine – A cleaning agent and a coating for surfaces, chlorine based solvents haven been proven to cause cancer, brain damage and reproductive dysfunction, pollute water and air, and contribute to ozone depletion. Products containing chlorine include dry cleaning fluid, refrigerator coolant, in the manufacture of paints, electronics. chlorine is used as a disinfectant for water and a cleaner, solvent and bleach. As chlorine is in some way connected with the majority of products we consume, it is impossible to avoid. The best action is to stick to simple cleansers like soap, bicarb soda and vinegar, and avoid using products made from PVC and PVDC which are not easily disposed of when their usefulness has ended. Polyethelene is a safer substitute. 3, 12, 34
Chlorofluorocarbons – CFC (also known as Difluorodichloromethane (CFC 12), or Freon 12); CFC 11 (also known as Flourotrichloromethane, Freon 11 and Trichloromonofluoromethane) and CFC 114 (also called Cryfluorane, Freon 114 and Tetrafluorodichloroethane), have been used as propellants in medications, cleaning products, pesticides, herbicides, foods and cosmetics. Known to cause asthma attacks, and cardiac arrhythmic in association with other medications. See also Ozone depletion 34, 47
Cheese – the curd of milk separated from the whey by means of an enzymes, usually rennet. Cheeses can be made without the addition of animal derived rennet, indeed without any animal products at all. See rennet 1, 8
Chymosin – enzymes derived from rennet. It is often genetically engineered. 8
Circuses – circus trainer have long used food deprivation, intimidation, muzzling, drugs, punishment/reward, shackling, whips and various other cruel and unnatural practices to enslave their animals. The physical and mental trauma suffered by circus animals cannot be justified in the name of human entertainment or money. 14
Civet – oil obtained from the civet, a small mammal, by stimulating it, usually through torture. Used in perfumes as a fixative. 75
Clothes powders – may contain phosphorus (common pollutant of waterways), ammonia, naphthalene or phenol. Sodium nitrilotriacetate (NAT) is commonly used in clothes detergents, recognised by the National Cancer Institute (US) as carcinogenic 12, 17
Cochineal – red food colouring made from crushed bodies of the female Dactylopius coccus an Indonesian scale insect. Sometimes called carminic acid or carmine. (Additive 120) 3, 14
Cod liver oil – fish oil 3, 14
Collagen – protein derived from the connective tissue of animals. 3, 14
Contraceptives – responsibility for contraception has largely been left to women and it is women who must decide what is to happen to their bodies. Breastfeeding has long been an effective way of spacing pregnancies, though few women continue it long enough to be effective. for couples who plan to have no more children, sterilisation is an effective method, and certainly an excellent economical form of population control. Modern chemical contraceptives are highly reliable, however the pill has many unwanted side-effects on health including migraine, increased risk of cancer of the cervix, liver and breast, gall-bladder disease, thrush, blood clots, strokes, diabetes, fluid retention skin disorders, depression and heart disease. In addition to this, most contain animal products and have been tested on them. IUD's are not 100% effective and work by causing abortion and may damage a foetus through copper poisoning even six months after it has ben removed. In an age where sexually transmitted diseases like Aids and Hepatitis can be fatal, abstinence is becoming increasing expedient. Condoms are ideal, offering protection for both sexual partners from either impregnation or transmission of disease. 12
Cortisone – hormone from cattle, used in medical creams. 14
Cosmetics – A great deal of cruel and unnecessary animal testing is carried out by some makers of cosmetics and toiletries. In the US there are no laws requiring animal testing, it is largely carried out to protect the companies in case of legal action. Irritants are dripped into the eyes of restrained rabbits, so to are their skins shaved and substances applied, injected or force fed to many animals to satisfy the greedy needs of companies who wish to develop new products. There are alternates to testing as there are to the toxic ingredients companies wish to use. For more information about testing, companies that do test on animals, don't test, and the alternatives to testing contact PETA online by clicking on the above items. A list of suitable cosmetics is available from Choose Cruelty Free at the address listed below or at any Animal Liberation Compassionate Shop. See also Draize test, LD50, shampoo, moisturisers, TESTING
Creams (skin) – many skin creams and sunscreens contain animals products or have been tested on animals. The ingredients to look out for include:
stearates derived from beef fat (stearic acid and anything with the prefix stear-, although not all are derived from animals it is hard to know unless specidfied on the label), lanolin, beeswax, casein (derived from milk), honey, eggs or albumin, allatoin, reticulin, keratin, arachidonic acid, benzoic acid (may be derived from vertebrates, though can be found in berries), cholesterol, L-cysteine, lecithin (may be derived from eggs), mystiric acid (also called Isopropyl Myristate, Myristyls, Oleyl Myristate, Myristal Ether Sulfate), oleic acid, palmitic acid, squalene (derived from sharks), tallow, Cetyl Palmitate (derived from whales).
Companies that make skin creams and sunscreens NOT tested on animals and may be suitable for vegans (some of their products contain animal products) include: Aloe Vera, Australis, Aveda, Blackmores, Beauty Without Cruelty, Evolve, Janesce, Jurlique, Melrose, The Body Shop, Thursday Plantation, Innoxa, Leichner, Lentheric, Natio, Starlet, Tania, Yardley.
These companies produce skin creams that are definately VEGAN : Aquarius, Dial, Evoke, In Essence, Nature's Remedy, The Good Oil
A complete list of products 'preferred products' is available from Choose Cruelty Free and Animal Liberation
"It takes over 80 million yards of cotton denim to meet the annual demand in the UK for jeans. Cotton cultivation provides around 50% of textile needs and occupies 5% of the world's productive land. Cotton is the largest single consumer of dangerous pesticides in the Third World (over 1,5000,000 kilos p.a.), and globally it accounts for around 11% of pesticide sales."(Real World Resources Guide) 55
According to Greenpeace, cotton production "uses 25% of the worlds insecticides", the UK's vegetarian society suggest it is as much as 50%. DDT is still used in developing countries growing cotton. Endosulfan, once the primary pesticide used by growers in the US, was found to cause fish kills and pollute drinking water. This was replaced by Helix, a chlorinated product, until residues were discovered in meat, the result of drought-stricken farmers feeding cotton trash to their starving cattle. Although Helix too has been discontinued, both products are persistent in the environment and cumulative in the bodies of animals like so many other pesticides. Cotton is bleached using chlorine, though unbleached cotton products are readily available. 34, 55
Cresol – found in some disinfectants, can cause foetal abnormality 13,17
Cysteine, L – amino acid from animal sources, often used in hair products and skin creams. see Panthenol. 14