100 – 181 Colorings
Food Additives with a “•” in front of its name shows that it is definitely or possibly Animal Derived.
100 Curcumin, yellow coloring derived from the root of the curcuma plant, but can be artificially produced. Used in food and fabric dye, also cheese, marg, baked sweets and fish fingers. 1, 48
•101 Riboflavin, vitamin and coloring, occurs naturally in greenveges, eggs, milk, liver and kidney. Used in marg and cheese. 48
102 Tartrazine, also called FD&C Yellow No. 5. Yellow coloring. An azo dye known to provoke asthma attacks (though the US FDA do not recognise this)and urticaria (nettle rash) in children (the US FDA estimates 1:10 000). Used to color drinks, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups. Banned in Norway and Austria. 96,13, 47
104 Quinoline, coloring also called D&C Yellow No.10. Used in lipsticks hair products, colognes. Also in a wide range of medications. Banned in Australia, USA and Norway 47
107 Yellow 7g Banned in Australia 47, 96
110 Sunset Yellow FCF, or FD&C Yellow No. 6. Azo dye and coal tar derivative. The third most commonly used food coloring. Orange coloring used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish. synthetic. also in many medications including Berocca, Polaramine, Ventolin syrup. Can provoke allergic reactions such as nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and hyperactivity; and increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway. 40, 47
•120 Cochineal, carminic acid, coloring made from insects, now widely replaced by Ponceau 4R (see cochineal) 48
122 Azorubine, coloring, coal tar derivative, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Carmoisine E122 is banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway. 96
123 Amaranth, purple coloring derived from the small herbaceous plant of the same name. For commercial purposes is a synthetic colorant derived from coal tar, which can provoke asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA in 1976, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries. 40, 48, 96
124 Ponceau 4R, red coloring, synthetic coal tar and azo dye, carcinogen in animals, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Banned in USA & Norway. 96
127 Erythrosine, also known as FD&C Red No. 3. Cherry-red coloring used in cherries, canned fruit, sweets, bakery, snack foods, synthetic. Was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990. Banned in January 1990, but not recalled by the US FDA. Still in use in Australia. Banned in Norway. 96
128 Red 2g, Banned in Australia and many other places except the UK 47, 96
129 Allura Red AC, also called FD&C Red No. 40. Orange-red coloring used in sweets, drinks and condiments, medications and cosmetics, synthetic. Introduced in the early eighties to replace amaranth which was considered not safe due to conflicting test results. Allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice. Banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway 48, 65, 96
131 Patent Blue, banned in Australia, USA and Norway. 47, 96
132 Indigotine, also called FD&C Blue No. 2, Indigo carmine, and Blue X. Deep blue coloring, commonly added to tablets and capsules. Also used in ice cream, sweets and baked goods, synthetic coal tar derivative. Banned in Norway. 47, 96
133 Brilliant Blue FCF, also known as FD&C Blue Dye No.1. Blue coloring used in dairy products, sweets and drinks, synthetic usually occurring as aluminum lake (solution) or ammonium salt. Banned in Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, Norway. 47, 96
140 Chlorophyll, green coloring occurring naturally in all plants. Used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics.
141 Chlorophyll-copper complex, coloring
142 Green S green coloring, synthetic coal tar derivative, used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce, packet bread crumbs and cake mixes. Banned in Sweden, USA and Norway. 47, 96
150 Caramel, coloring made from sucrose.
151 Brilliant Black BN, coloring, coal tar derivative. In brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes. Banned in Denmark, Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway 96
153 Carbon black, charcoal pigment, only the vegetable derived variety permitted inAustralia. In jams, jelly crystals, liquorice.
154 Brown FK, Banned in USA, Norway 96
155 Brown or Chocolate Brown HT, coloring, coal tar and azo dye, can produce bad reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin. Also known to induce skin sensitivity. Banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway 96
•160 Carotenoids, yellow and red colorings derived from plant and animal sources. The yellow pigment in egg yolks and butterfat is caused by hydroxylated carotenoids. Carotenoids are important in cancer research at the moment for their antioxidant qualities and since they are in greater abundance in yellow and red vegetables than anywhere else, they are probably the best source of them.
160a Caretene, yellow or orange coloring. Rich in vitamin A, found in carrots, and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables.
160b Annatto, red coloring, a carotenoid derived from an Amazonian rainforest tree (Bixa orellana) where the people use it as a body paint, fabric dye, digestive aid and expectorant. In the western world it is used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods, soaps, textiles and varnishes. Known to cause urticaria (nettle rash) 5, 47
160e Beta-apo-8 carotenal, coloring
160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8 carotenioic acid, coloring
160g Canthaxanthin, orange coloring, may be derived from sunflowers, seaweed or mushrooms. Used in foods such as baked goods, barbecue sauce, butter, cheese, fruit drinks, pizza, salad dressings, soups and tomato products; as well as feed additive to change the color of chickens’ skin and egg yolks. Also available as an oral tanning preparation., and used to color tablet coating. May cause skin discoloration, amenhorrea, retinal growths, nausea, diarrhea and urticaria especially in those taking tanning medications 47
161 Xanthophylls – lutein, yellow coloring derived from plants, is naturally found in green leaves, marigolds and egg yolks. 48
•161 Xanthophylls – canthaxanthin, coloring possibly derived from animal sources (retinol), the pigment is found in some mushrooms, crustacea, fish, flamingo feathers. 48
162 Beetroot red, coloring, betanin derived from beets
163 Anthocyanins, the coloring matter of flowers and plants
170 Calcium carbonate, mineral salt, coloring used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders. May be derived from rock mineral or animal bones. Sometimes used to deacidify wines and firm canned fruit and veg. 13, 14, 3, 48
171 Titanium dioxide, coloring used in toothpaste and white paint, pollutes waterways
172 Iron oxide, black, yellow, red, coloring used in salmon and shrimp pastes.
181 Tannic acid, clarifying agent in alcohol, derived from the nutgalls and twigs of oak trees. Occurs naturally in tea. 48