Hard Red Wheat Berries
Normally the flour that makes bread should be make from  hard red or hard white wheat. Breads made with hard red wheat produces a fuller, heartier flavor, and the bread will have a slightly darker color than if it's made with hard white wheat.  Whole grain white wheat is completely different from store-bought "white flour"! White wheat kernels are actually light brown and red wheat kernels are reddish-brown, while store-bought white flour is basically the "energy-producing carbohydrate" part of the kernel known as endosperm. Oxidation occurs when whole grain or fruits are exposed to oxygen in the air. This diminishes their nutritional value the more they are exposed. The way to get full nutrition from whole grain foods is to mill them when you need them, right in your kitchen or use an air tight container to store it. Make sure it's kept dry.
Red wheat has from one to three genes that give the bran its red cast. Hard white wheat was developed from hard red wheat by eliminating these genes for bran color to significantly reduce the bitter taste that some people experience in flour milled from red wheat.
There are two kinds of hard red wheat berries, Hard Red Spring wheat has a higher protein content than the winter wheat and is a better substitute for bread flour when making sandwich loaves, but the slightly lower protein content of the Hard Red Winter wheat makes it great for mixing with other flours like rye and using it as a starter to produce Old World style breads. Spring wheat is planted in April and May and is harvested in August and early September. The protein gluten contained in the wheat berry is what allows the dough to become elastic, rise, and hold its shape and is used to make seitan, which is a pure form of gluten.

Spring Hard Red WheatHard White Wheat

White Flour
Do you eat white bread, pasta, noodles, cakes, biscuits, doughnuts, pies or any of the other foods made using white flour? White flour starts out as a natural whole food, but then what happen?
The outer shell that's known as the bran, which contains most of the fibre content in the grain is removed so it can be sold separately at health food shops as a fibre supplement. Does this mean the real cost of white flour should be the white flour plus fibre supplement from a health food store?
Next they remove a small part congregated at one end of the grain called the Germ because it sticks to the processing machine, even though the Germ contains all the nutrients.
The remaining part of the grain called the Endosperm is then ground into a fine brownish powder. This means if you are buying white unbleached flour, the joke is on you. To change this powder from brownish to white it is bleached with chlorine, chloride, oxide of nitrogen, nitrosyl or benzoyl peroxide mixed with various chemicals of the salt family, and some of this bleach remains in the flour after you buy it. Are these bleach safe? Chloride oxide combined with proteins produces a poison called Alloxan that is said to produce diabetes in laboratory animals. Don't worry I already mention that all the nutrients were removed from the flour, you'd have to combine the flour with something nutritious to be at risk for diabetes.
Now we have our nice looking white flour that has no fibres, vitamins or minerals. To "Enrich" the flour, synthetic vitamins that are produced in chemical laboratories are added.
Some manufactures go a step further in the flower making process by adding other fillers that include Alum, emulsifiers and caramel coloring. Alum gives bread a whiter color and also allows the flour to absorb and retain a larger amount of water so that factories using it to produce bread can make the bread appear to be made from a higher quality flour. The emulsifier is used as a softening agent to prolongs the shelf life of the bread and hide signs that the bread is rotting. Caramel coloring is sometimes used to change the color of white bread so it can be sold as whole wheat bread in stores, this is allowed because there are no standard as to what percentage of the bread should be whole wheat before it can be labeled 100% whole wheat, and the flour was whole wheat before the processing anyway.

Whole Wheat Grain Amount Per Serving / % Daily Value

Hard Wheat White Berries

Hard Wheat Red Berries Spring Steel Cut Oats Short Grain Brown Rice Long Grain Brown Rice
Serving Size: 1/4 cup 48g 45g 44g 49g 48g
Calories 160 150 170 170 180
Calories From Fat 5 5 25 15 15
Total Fat 0.5g/1% 0.5g/1% 3g/5% 1.5g/2% 1.5g/2%
Saturated Fat 0 0 0.5g/3% 0 0.5g/3%
Sodium 0 0 0 0 5mg
Potassium 207mg/6% 163mg/5% 158mg/5% 62mg/2% 107mg/3%
Total Carbohydrate 34g/11% 32g/11% 29g/10% 38g/13% 37g/12%
Dietary Fibers 6g/24% 6g/24% 5g/20% 3g/12% 3g/12%
Sugars 0 1g 0 1g 0
Protein 6g/12% 6g/12% 7g/14% 3g/6% 4g/8%
Phosphorus 170mg/17% 159mg/16% 202mg/20% 61mg/6% 160mg/16%
Calcium 2% 2% 2% 0 0
Iron 8% 8%t 10% 2 4%

Unleavened bread such as the Middle Eastern "pita" or the Indian "chapati" is basically made from flour, water and salt. Regular bread also contain a fermenting agent to make it rise such as a sourdough starter or yeast. The bread is kneaded by picking up the far edge of the dough and folding it over the bottom edge, pressing down with the heels of your hands, pushing the dough away from you, turning the dough one quarter turn and repeat the process. This should distribute the yeast and develop gluten for an even texture and make the bread dough smooth and no longer sticky. It is then allowed to rise, shaped or molded, and baked in the oven.

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) is made from ash, water and carbon dioxide but you can make baking soda at home by using Sodium chloride, carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. Does it sound like the yummy treat in cakes etc? Too much baking soda can cause a high alkalosis condition that will require immediate placement of a breathing tube and mechanical breathing support. The kidneys and lungs maintain the proper balance of chemicals. Alkalosis is a result of either decreased carbon dioxide  or increased bicarbonate levels that make the body too alkaline. Metabolic alkalosis is caused by too much bicarbonate in the blood. Symptoms include slowed breathing to not breathing for up to 15 seconds, discoloration of the skin, and signs of inadequate oxygen intake. Sodium bicarbonate lowers potassium which can result in symptoms such as confusion, fatigue, weakness, faintness, numb or tingling sensations, muscle cramps, constipation, vomiting and a rapid heartbeat. Very low potassium can cause an irregular heart rhythm. Allergic reaction to sodium bicarbonate may include hives, itching, wheezing, difficulty breathing, coughing, chest tightness, throat closing, fever, facial or mouth swelling, skin turning blue and seizures.

Baking Powder is simply a mixture of baking soda and cream of tartar.
Cream of tartar is an acid based salt used in cooking and is also known as potassium bitartrate or potassium hydrogen tartrate. Some of it's uses in food include stabilizing egg whites to increase their heat tolerance and volume, preventing sugar syrups from crystallizing and reducing the discoloration of boiled vegetables.

Vinegar is made from fruit or grains that are fermented using yeast to change their chemical structure.

Yeast is a tiny plant-like microorganism in the soil, on plants and even in the air. It's generally used in the process of fermentation. It operates as a leavener to produce the gas that makes bread rise by feeding on the sugars in flour, and expelling carbon dioxide in the process. The carbon dioxide from yeast fills thousands of balloon-like bubbles in the dough so it rises just like a hot air balloon filled with carbon dioxide. This gives the loaf of bread its airy texture.

The Three Main Nutrients in Food are carbohydrates, fats and protein. The three common types of carbohydrates in foods are sugar, starch, and Dietary fiber.

Dietary fiber also known as roughage, is the indigestible part of plant foods that absorbs water while it travels through the digestive system and ease bowel movements.

Starchy foods are a good source of energy. Special proteins called enzymes break down starch into glucose so your body can burn it for energy when you eat starchy food.

Protein are needed to builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body. Your muscles, organs, and immune system are mostly made up of protein.

Phosphorus is important for many essential processes in the body. It combines with calcium for the formation of bones and teeth. Phosphorus is also involved in digestion and determining which fat, carbohydrate and protein are nutritious.

Potassium is important to your health because it keeps fluids and minerals balanced in your body. Potassium may also decrease your risk of having a stroke and help lower your blood pressure. Insufficient potassium in your body will make you feel weak, your bowels may stop working, your heart may beat very fast or you may have irregular heartbeats. Low potassium levels in your body is called hypokalemia.

Iron enhances oxygen distribution throughout your body, keeps your immune system healthy and helps your body produce energy. Symptoms of iron deficiency includes decreased ability to concentrate, feeling fatigue, weak, dizzy and having headaches. Iron poisoning is caused by the ingestion of large quantities of iron-containing supplements. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, damage to the lining of the intestinal tract, shock, and liver failure.


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